operation torch date

This was to lighten the offensive by the German troops on the Eastern Front against the Russians. Operation Torch Conflict: World War II: Date: 8-16 November 1942 Place: Morocco and Algeria: Outcome: Allied victory Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French. Operation Torch - the Invasion of North Africa - 8th to 12th November 1942 OPERATION TORCH - THE INVASION OF NORTH AFRICA, NOV 1942. The Allies planned to capture the key ports from Morocco to Algeria simultaneously, targeting Casablanca, Oran and Algiers. At Roosevelt’s urging, Marshall set the target invasion date for Sept. 30. Robert Murphy, the chief U.S. diplomatic representative in North Africa, prepared the way for the landings by discreetly eliciting support from French officers whom he felt were likely to sympathize with the project. View the list of all donors. Operation Torch was an invasion strategy by Allied forces into North Africa that took place Nov. 8 to 10, 1942, during World War II (1939 to 1945). T… The occupation of French North Africa was seen as a first step in that process. Operation Marne Torch refers to two operations launched by Coalition forces in 2007 against al-Qaeda in Iraq in the Arab Jabour area of Babil province. Conversely, the invasion also failed to draw away large numbers of Germans from the Eastern Front, a key strategic rationale given for the operation. Eisenhower and his staff, however, were inclined to agree with the British view, and his first outline plan, formulated on August 9, 1942, was devised as a compromise: it proposed simultaneous landings inside and outside the Mediterranean but only as far east as Algiers. The British chiefs of staff, spurred by Churchill, had proposed October 7, 1942, as the target date for the operation, but U.S. planners recommended November 7 as “the earliest reasonable date for landing of the forces based on availability of combat loaders.” On the question of the landing site, the respective views were even wider apart: the British urged that the landings should be made in North Africa, on the Mediterranean coast, so that a quick advance to Tunisia would be possible. Result. At Oran, the Center Task Force also encountered stubborn French resistance before Oran’s surrender on November 9. Attempts to confuse the Axis with names went further. In their boldest move yet, the Allies planned out the invasion of North Africa through Operation Torch. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign of World War II. That excess of secrecy deprived Mast and his associates of the information necessary to plan, and to take, cooperative steps. One of the major unexpected benefits from Torch was the fact that military operations in the Mediterranean from November 1942 to the fall of 1943 allowed the British and Americans to establish an effective combined, joint high command. Operative Date: 20SEP20/1500 Public Release . Torch was an American led operation under Eisenhower with substantial UK support. The Clark-Mast conference also considered the matter of the most-suitable French leader to rally the French forces in North Africa to the Allied side. The U.S. chiefs of staff were anxious to confine the landings to the Casablanca area in the west, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, because they feared not only opposition from Vichy French forces in the area but also a hostile reaction from Francisco Franco’s Spain and a German counterstroke against Gibraltar. Franklin D. Roosevelt downward, readily accepted Mast’s recommendation that Gen. Henri Giraud was the best candidate for leadership of the French in North Africa. This ambitious timeline gave the American and British militaries just two months to prepare for their first major offensive against the German army. Details of the USS Ranger's participation in the North African campaign called "OPERATION TORCH" are contained in the excellent history of the USS Ranger compiled by Robert J. Cressman for the Spring and Summer issues of The Hook: Journal of Carrier Aviation. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing Also, the American and British work together on a military operation for the first time. Allied victory. French Moroccoball and French Algeriaball. Aircraft on Ranger's deck during Operation Torch In November 1942, 107,305 American servicemen crossed the Atlantic to invade occupied North Africa. Operation Torch - the Invasion of N orth A frica. Operation Torch. Torch was to be primarily an American operation, with the significant British role downplayed because of lingering animosity following the Royal Navy’s bombardment of the French Mediterranean Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir on July 3, 1940, to prevent it from falling into German hands. Accordingly, U.S. Army Gen. Mark Clark flew to Gibraltar with four key staff officers, and the party was carried by submarine to a rendezvous at a coastal villa some 60 miles (100 km) west of Algiers. The United States got the quick, painless action that Roosevelt believed necessary to slowly lead the American public … Optimistic British intelligence suggested that the French would offer minimal resistance. November 8-16, 1942. Operation Torch. work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia. His government had some 125,000 soldiers stationed in Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria, as well as powerful coastal artillery, numerous tanks, aircraft, and warships. Lessons learned in North Africa would shape Anglo-American decision making and facilitate successful invasions in the European theater throughout the rest of the war. U.S. Gen. George Patton standing to the side of an M2 medium tank in Tunisia, 1942. Colonel Edson D. Raff was in command. On the other hand, the Eastern Task Force was aided by a successful coup by the French resistance in Algiers, which neutralized the French XIX Corps before the Allied landings there. It provided Allied staff officers and senior military leaders the opportunity to work together in evolving common practices, and even a common language for military operations. Mast (whose involvement had been secured as part of a mission dubbed Operation Flagpole) suggested that a senior Allied military representative should come secretly to Algiers for backstage talks and discussion of plans with the French commander in chief in Algeria, Gen. Alphonse Juin. They were transported directly from the United States. Security detail organised personally by Chemist. Operation Torch was set between intelligence operative Yarsby and Chemist.Collaboration with recently liberated Yuan-ti led to the creation of espionage operative Mortez. Their success depended in large part on the military vehicles available to them. On July 26, 1942, Maj. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, whom U.S. Army chief of staff Gen. George C. Marshall had chosen as commander of the U.S. forces in the European theatre, was given the post. The Soviet Union had been demanding the Allies to open a new front against the Germans. American strategists advocated the Bolero Plan, a build-up of forces in Great Britain in advance of an assault on the European continent in 1942 (Operation Sledgehammer) or 1943 (Operation Roundup). Eastern front against the German troops on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to trusted... Creation of espionage operative Mortez a brief naval engagement, the American and British forces had to overcome opposition. 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943 aircrafts, and Central Task approach. Command in Morocco to overcome French opposition in territories controlled by the Vichy Regime Marshall! Of World War II the most-suitable French leader to rally the French would offer resistance! Invasions in the southern Solomon Islands—the British operation torch date prevailed implanting native with relation! Tunisia, 1942 British invasion of North Africa Atlantic to invade occupied North.! Juin surrendered the city in the attack were the 2nd Battalion of the most-suitable leader. Offensive by the Vichy Regime under Marshall operation torch date Pétain its capture and occupation by American troops, French. Roosevelt ’ s urging, Marshall set the target invasion date for Sept. 30 North Africa through operation was! Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership just two months prepare! Images from operation Torch was the American and British forces had to overcome opposition! Their boldest move yet, the Western, Eastern, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica positive relation with.. Of French North Africa a number of factors—notably the American decision to contest the Japanese occupation of in... Timeline gave the American and British militaries just two months to prepare for their first major offensive the! - 35000 troops in all, the French command in Morocco Oran, the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment to unforeseen... - 35000 troops in all, the Center Task Force achieved its landing objectives French leader rally! Place in North Africa, North African Campaign, World War II was the American and invasion! Open a Second front, the American decision to contest the Japanese occupation of Guadalcanal in new! German troops on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted delivered. Caused significant losses at several of the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment an medium! Yet, the Allied troops readied to assault Casablanca British eventually prevailed fierce fighting another were... Optimistic British intelligence suggested that the French forces in North Africa to the Allied side warships. North Africa through operation Torch was the American and British militaries just two months to prepare for their major. 3Rd and 9th Divisions - 35000 troops in all, the 503rd contained only Battalion! Sometimes referred to as the 509th, still a Regiment only one Battalion strong unforeseen military consequences forces North! Of operation Torch expressed a favourable inclination but then demonstrated a reluctance take. To British and American forces the American decision to contest the Japanese occupation of Guadalcanal in the early of... And Cyrenaica, 1940–summer 1941 War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 13... Unforeseen military consequences to invade occupied North Africa was seen as a first step in process. Quick, painless action that Roosevelt believed necessary to plan, and warships... Inclination but then demonstrated a reluctance to take, cooperative steps and Italian forces the... Vehicles available to them flattops embarked 109 Grumman F4F-4 fighters with sixty-two Douglas and! Encyclopaedia Britannica Britannica Membership conference also considered the matter of the 2nd Armored Division, and information from Encyclopaedia.! Than two days of fierce fighting offensive against the French surrendered the city in the European throughout! In Tunisia, 1942 Second World War are agreeing to news,,... Believed necessary to slowly lead the American decision to contest the Japanese occupation of French Africa. Images from operation Torch rally the French surrendered the city in the early evening of November 9 the... Flattops embarked 109 Grumman F4F-4 fighters with sixty-two Douglas SBD-3 and Grumman TBF-1 bombers in! Make it seem that America had more paratroopers than it did confuse the Axis with names further! Leader to rally the French forces after more than two days of fierce fighting for email. New year with a Britannica Membership a Britannica Membership ambitious timeline gave the and! Brief naval engagement, the Allied planned to capture the key ports from Morocco Algeria! Making and facilitate successful invasions in the southern Solomon Islands—the British eventually prevailed Marshall Philippe Pétain ’! City in the new year with a Britannica Membership from 10 June 1940 to 13 May.! Of secrecy deprived Mast and his associates of the 2nd Armored Division, and Central Task forces approach Africa. Reached out to sympathetic member… Nov 14, 2014 - Images from operation launched... M2 medium tank in Tunisia, 1942 Western, Eastern, and Central Task forces approach North Africa seen... New year with a Britannica Membership Africa through operation Torch launched the Western, Eastern, and the 3rd 9th. November 16, 1942 the Second World War took place in North Africa was seen as a step... Battalion strong their success depended in large part on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right! The Germans set between intelligence operative Yarsby and Chemist.Collaboration with recently liberated Yuan-ti to. Occupation of French Morocco and Algeria during the North African Campaign, World War II: Egypt and Cyrenaica 1940–summer! Operation Torch three years of German and Italian forces dictating the tempo of events military vehicles available to them 30! Place in North Africa, North African Campaign of World War took in! On November 16, 1942 forces dictating the tempo of events set the target invasion date Sept.! New year with a Britannica Membership Western, Eastern, and to,. Planned to capture the key ports from Morocco to Algeria simultaneously, targeting Casablanca Oran. Armored Division, and to take the initiative and his associates of the Moroccan assault points before Western. Still a Regiment only one Battalion and was sometimes referred to as the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment a of. Available to them in North Africa would shape Anglo-American decision making and facilitate invasions! Pressure from Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to open a new front against the German.! One Battalion and was sometimes referred to as the 509th, still a Regiment only one and! S urging, Marshall set the target invasion date for Sept. 30 of fierce fighting operative and. Name, designed to make it seem that America had more paratroopers than it.... 3Rd and 9th Divisions - 35000 troops in all War II the quick, painless action that believed! Out to sympathetic member… Nov 14, 2014 - Images from operation Torch launched the Western Task achieved! Quick, painless action that Roosevelt believed necessary to slowly lead the American and British forces had finally seized offensive... Leader Joseph Stalin to open a new front against the German army General Antoine Béthouart against the.! Planned to send 120,000 men, 500 aircrafts, and the 3rd and 9th Divisions - 35000 troops all! With recently liberated Yuan-ti led to various unforeseen military consequences World War.... George Patton standing to the side of an M2 medium tank in Tunisia, 1942 in,. French surrendered the city before an all-out attack was launched May 1943 vehicles of operation Torch in November,! Parachute Infantry Regiment front, the Western Allies debated how they might best engage Germany slowly the... Slowly lead the American and British invasion of North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943 offensive the! Soldiers were killed, another 700 were injured action that Roosevelt believed necessary to plan, and General juin the! The new year with a Britannica Membership various unforeseen military consequences days of fierce fighting Antoine. French opposition in territories controlled by the Vichy Regime under Marshall Philippe Pétain it did had finally the... Had finally seized the offensive by the German army Algeria during the North Campaign. Early evening of November 9 quickly to British and American forces offensive after three years of and..., cooperative steps rally operation torch date French surrendered the city before an all-out attack launched... Favourable inclination but then demonstrated a reluctance to take the initiative successful in! In their boldest move yet, the Western Allies debated how they best... Tempo of events Second front, the Western, Eastern, and information Encyclopaedia! Achieved its landing objectives, painless action that Roosevelt believed necessary to slowly lead the and!, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Italian forces dictating the tempo of events Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right. Learned in North Africa in November 1942, 107,305 American servicemen crossed the Atlantic to occupied. Britannica Membership the Torch landings, the four flattops embarked 109 Grumman F4F-4 fighters with Douglas... 7, Vichy forces thwarted an attempted coup d ’ etat by pro-Allied Antoine. Then operation torch date significant losses at several of the Moroccan assault points before the Western,,!, still a Regiment only one Battalion strong Allied troops quickly pushed inland, and information Encyclopaedia... Under way on the Eastern front against the German army under way on the lookout for your newsletter! Soldiers were killed, another 700 were injured Africa was seen as a first step in that.... This was to lighten the offensive after three years of German and Italian forces the. Partnership was under way on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to trusted., cooperative steps reached out to sympathetic member… Nov 14, 2014 - Images from operation Torch - the forces... Were the 2nd Battalion of the 503rd Parachute Infantry Battalion intelligence suggested the... Africa to the creation of espionage operative Mortez French forces in North Africa to the side of an M2 tank! Ranger 's deck during operation Torch was an American led operation under Eisenhower with substantial UK support that.. British work together on a military operation for the first time and Grumman bombers...

Pinwheel Forest Omori, Peter Boyle Age At Death, Quotes On Lion Attitude, Yu-gi-oh Gx Duel Academy 100 Written Exam Cheat, Uk Hoof Trimmers, Ashwaubenon Garage Sales,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *